This has entailed not only a drastic compression of imports and a sharp devaluation of national currencies but also the retrenchment of a sizable portion of the wage- and salary-earning population. For example, in shipping ports, where the transshipment of oil takes place, the chronic release of oil into the water through ship leakage, ship maintenance or mishandling is a continuing dilemma.
A decline in fertility, however, will not completely eliminate the momentum that has built up in the years of rapid population growth. The training represented the first step in developing a Laboratory Quality Assurance Manual, which describes the quality assurance and quality control processes to be used by each laboratory.
At the same time, sharply rising prices for imported energy products forced many families to fall back on wood and charcoal for their domestic energy needs.
In the process, they have accumulated valuable information that should be incorporated into a formal analyses of sustainable development.
A recent study of the relationships among population growth and density, the intensification of agriculture, and the implications for sustainability offers some useful insights on this issue.
Because of this complexity, no easy solutions are available. They are entirely realistic and they point towards disaster.
Future prospects must be assessed against this background of diversity. Soil degradation caused by deforestation is also a serious threat in Africa. The rural poor, the overwhelming majority of Africa's citizens, destroy their own environment, not out of ignorance, but simply to survive.
First, over the period tothis region lost a large part of its population to internecine warfare and the slave trade.
The relationship between the parent soils and the soil forming factors are very complex because the land surface has undergone a series of shifts in vegetation and climate. They are the principal source of rural energy, and provide countless medicinal and industrial products used in both the home and in small-scale industry.
Natural habitats, such as seabeds, wetlands and mudlands, which are increasingly recognized as fundamental elements of a country's natural environment and economic resource base, are often located near or in maritime port locations. Africa also suffers from geologically induced and inherently low soil fertility as the bedrock consists of mostly granites and gneiss.
Although it is often claimed that land tenure in sub-Saharan Africa is so complex that nothing can be done about it, it is difficult to believe that meaningful reforms cannot be introduced. High dependence on the export of primary products left sub-Saharan African countries vulnerable to the long decline of commodity prices that began in the s.
Although domestic demand for energy consumption in sub-Saharan Africa is growing rapidly, consumption levels remain well below world averages. The Roles of the State and International Assistance It is clear that the environmental challenges in sub-Saharan Africa are more complex than the simple model linking environmental degradation to population growth and inappropriate macroeconomic policies indicates.
Contrary to conventional wisdom, detailed field investigations in Nigeria have found that the rising demand for fuelwood has not led to greater deforestation or desertification.
About half of the country's highland area is significantly eroded, reducing yields by between 2 per cent and 3 per cent a year. Already, fertility has begun to decline in some countries, such as Zimbabwe, Kenya, and Cameroon. The workshop shared current outcomes from the West Africa Drinking Water Laboratory Capacity Program, including improvements to laboratory processes following the technical training, the development of a Quality Assurance system and manual at GWCL, and a mentoring program for laboratory auditing established by AfWA.
In urban areas, it should focus on providing safe water, collecting and disposing solid waste, and improving the physical layout of congested areas; in the rural areas, it should focus on health, education, and basic sanitation. Widespread AIDS-related mortality has caused a decrease in population growth for many African countries.
During the last 25 years, annual growth rates of 2. Deforestation exposes the soil to high temperatures which break down the organic matter, increase evaporation and make the soils vulnerable to erosion. But as already pointed out, in most of sub-Saharan Africa the population density is relatively low.
As simple survival has become more problematical, it has become increasingly difficult to avoid overexploiting natural resources and degrading the environment. Clearly, these developments put acute strain on the environment everywhere in the region. Consequently, much as colonial and post-colonial governments tried to make farmers more market oriented, the fact that one of their major inputs lies outside the market system has always limited the success of this effort.
Most countries of the Sahel and mountainous East Africa will face severe problems. Not enough emphasis has been given to the role of law in alleviating poverty and protecting the environment. To summarize, available evidence leaves no doubt that soil degradation caused by erosion, desertification, deforestation, and poor agricultural practices is undermining the very resources on which African farmers and their families depend for their very survival.
The information delivered to decision-makers is often overly technical and easy to misinterpret. In the closing years of the 20th century, virtually every country in this region is slipping on almost every index of development.
Based on initial consultations, assessments and scoping activities, the workshop confirmed needed activities to support drinking water laboratory capacity, including training to assist the African Water Association AfWA in developing a cadre of auditors; training on quality systems, lab methods and data management; and the completion of a quality assurance manual for Ghana Water Company Limited GWCL.
At the same time, shortages of cereals forced 4p prices of food staples.
But what decision makers ask for is not often technically possible as there is a lack of information that combines knowledge of future climate with other disciplines such as hydrology or ecology.Climate change and environmental degradation are likely to trigger increased migration in Sub-Saharan Africa with potentially devastating effects on the hundreds of millions of especially poor.
Environmental Effects on Sub Saharan Africa This Essay Environmental Effects on Sub Saharan Africa and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on tsuki-infini.com Autor: review • February 5, • Essay • 1, Words (6 Pages) • Views.
kakonge Environmental Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa: Environmental Impact Assessment at the Crossroads John O. Kakonge Associate Research Scholar. One major challenge is the ability for both rural and urban Africans to access a clean water supply. Rapid growth of urban areas, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, has lead to large volumes of water being extracted from existing sources.
irregular water supply, and environmental concerns for aquatic life due to the high concentration of. However, the environmental resource base of the region is shrinking rapidly. Environmental problems of sub-Saharan Africa include air and water pollution, deforestation, loss of soil and soil fertility, and a dramatic decline in biodiversity throughout the region.
at least years (Balkau and Parsons, ). Some examples of past mining environmental legacies in sub-Saharan Africa include: Environmental problems related to copper mining in Zambia prior to privatisation; Abandoned pits and shafts over a large area of unregulated artisanal mining in West Africa.Download